Here’s a simple script that anyone can use to check for lags in Data Guard. Basically, there’s two kind of lags in Data Guard that we want to monitor. The first is the apply_lag which is the amount of time the standby database is lagging behind relative to the primary database due to application of redo data. The second is the transport_lag which provides information about how much redo data is behind (in terms of time) because it is not available or applicable on the standby database. The transport lag can be used to determine bandwidth issues between the primary and stanby database sites.

You can specify the MIN_THRESHOLD parameter which will be the 2nd parameter that is passed into the dg_check_lag.ksh script (below). For lot of our customers who are on Active Data Guard, we change this script to determine seconds that the transport and apply lag is behind by. It is common for us to send alerts when the transport or apply lag is greater than 30 seconds for Active Data Guard customers.

Stay tuned as I will reveal scripts to monitor gaps in archive log sequences. I use the term gap loosely here as it is not determining the gap from v$archive_gap but looking at the number of applied archive logs on the standby database and comparing the applied archive logs to the maximum sequence number based on the thread number.

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In the first part of this series, we went through installing Oracle Linux 7 Update 2. In this part of the series, we will configure the Oracle Linux UEK OS, configure the docker image, and configure OSCSA (Oracle Storage Cloud Software Appliance).

First add the UEKR4 channel to the /etc/yum.repos.d/ repository:

name=Latest Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel Release 4 for Oracle Linux $releasever ($basearch)

We need to boot the Linux Host Using the UEK4 Kernel. The UEK version that ships from Oracle Linux 7 update 2 is UEK 3 Release 8.

We need to remove the UEK 3.8 first. You will encounter errors about the packages that the 3.8 kernel is dependent on. If you see such errors similar to what you see below, you can ignore them.

[root@oscsa yum.repos.d]# rpm -qa |grep -i kernel
[root@oscsa yum.repos.d]# rpm -e kernel-uek
warning: file /lib/modules/3.8.13-98.7.1.el7uek.x86_64/modules.symbols.bin: remove failed: No such file or directory
warning: file /lib/modules/3.8.13-98.7.1.el7uek.x86_64/modules.softdep: remove failed: No such file or directory
warning: file /lib/modules/3.8.13-98.7.1.el7uek.x86_64/modules.devname: remove failed: No such file or directory
warning: file /lib/modules/3.8.13-98.7.1.el7uek.x86_64/modules.dep.bin: remove failed: No such file or directory
warning: file /lib/modules/3.8.13-98.7.1.el7uek.x86_64/modules.builtin.bin: remove failed: No such file or directory
warning: file /lib/modules/3.8.13-98.7.1.el7uek.x86_64/modules.alias.bin: remove failed: No such file or directory
[root@oscsa yum.repos.d]# rpm -qa |grep -i kernel

[root@oscsa yum.repos.d]# rpm -e kernel-uek-firmware-3.8.13-98.7.1.el7uek.noarch

Now we can install UEK 4:

[root@oscsa yum.repos.d]# yum install kernel-uek
Loaded plugins: langpacks, ulninfo
ol7_UEKR3                                                                                                                         | 1.2 kB  00:00:00     
ol7_UEKR4                                                                                                                         | 1.2 kB  00:00:00     
ol7_latest                                                                                                                        | 1.4 kB  00:00:00     
(1/2): ol7_UEKR4/x86_64/updateinfo                                                                                                |  32 kB  00:00:00     
(2/2): ol7_UEKR4/x86_64/primary                                                                                                   | 8.9 MB  00:00:03     
ol7_UEKR4                                                                                                                                        208/208
Resolving Dependencies
--> Running transaction check
---> Package kernel-uek.x86_64 0:4.1.12-61.1.16.el7uek will be installed
--> Processing Dependency: kernel-firmware = 4.1.12-61.1.16.el7uek for package: kernel-uek-4.1.12-61.1.16.el7uek.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: dracut-kernel >= 033-360.0.3 for package: kernel-uek-4.1.12-61.1.16.el7uek.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: linux-firmware >= 20160604-44.git57b649d9.0.2 for package: kernel-uek-4.1.12-61.1.16.el7uek.x86_64
--> Running transaction check
---> Package dracut.x86_64 0:033-359.0.1.el7 will be updated
--> Processing Dependency: dracut = 033-359.0.1.el7 for package: dracut-network-033-359.0.1.el7.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: dracut = 033-359.0.1.el7 for package: dracut-config-rescue-033-359.0.1.el7.x86_64
---> Package dracut.x86_64 0:033-360.0.3.el7_2.1 will be an update
---> Package kernel-uek-firmware.noarch 0:4.1.12-61.1.16.el7uek will be installed
---> Package linux-firmware.noarch 0:20150904-43.git6ebf5d5.0.1.el7 will be updated
---> Package linux-firmware.noarch 0:20160604-44.git57b649d9.0.2.el7 will be an update
--> Running transaction check
---> Package dracut-config-rescue.x86_64 0:033-359.0.1.el7 will be updated
---> Package dracut-config-rescue.x86_64 0:033-360.0.3.el7_2.1 will be an update
---> Package dracut-network.x86_64 0:033-359.0.1.el7 will be updated
---> Package dracut-network.x86_64 0:033-360.0.3.el7_2.1 will be an update
--> Finished Dependency Resolution

Dependencies Resolved

 Package                                Arch                     Version                                              Repository                    Size
 kernel-uek                             x86_64                   4.1.12-61.1.16.el7uek                                ol7_UEKR4                     42 M
Installing for dependencies:
 kernel-uek-firmware                    noarch                   4.1.12-61.1.16.el7uek                                ol7_UEKR4                    2.0 M
Updating for dependencies:
 dracut                                 x86_64                   033-360.0.3.el7_2.1                                  ol7_latest                   311 k
 dracut-config-rescue                   x86_64                   033-360.0.3.el7_2.1                                  ol7_latest                    49 k
 dracut-network                         x86_64                   033-360.0.3.el7_2.1                                  ol7_latest                    90 k
 linux-firmware                         noarch                   20160604-44.git57b649d9.0.2.el7                      ol7_latest                    31 M

Transaction Summary
Install  1 Package  (+1 Dependent package)
Upgrade             ( 4 Dependent packages)

Total download size: 75 M
Is this ok [y/d/N]: y
Downloading packages:
Delta RPMs disabled because /usr/bin/applydeltarpm not installed.
warning: /var/cache/yum/x86_64/7Server/ol7_latest/packages/dracut-033-360.0.3.el7_2.1.x86_64.rpm: Header V3 RSA/SHA256 Signature, key ID ec551f03: NOKEY 
Public key for dracut-033-360.0.3.el7_2.1.x86_64.rpm is not installed
(1/6): dracut-033-360.0.3.el7_2.1.x86_64.rpm                                                                                      | 311 kB  00:00:00     
(2/6): dracut-config-rescue-033-360.0.3.el7_2.1.x86_64.rpm                                                                        |  49 kB  00:00:00     
(3/6): dracut-network-033-360.0.3.el7_2.1.x86_64.rpm                                                                              |  90 kB  00:00:00     
Public key for kernel-uek-firmware-4.1.12-61.1.16.el7uek.noarch.rpm is not installed                                   ] 1.8 MB/s | 8.7 MB  00:00:37 ETA 
(4/6): kernel-uek-firmware-4.1.12-61.1.16.el7uek.noarch.rpm                                                                       | 2.0 MB  00:00:03     
(5/6): kernel-uek-4.1.12-61.1.16.el7uek.x86_64.rpm                                                                                |  42 MB  00:00:24     
(6/6): linux-firmware-20160604-44.git57b649d9.0.2.el7.noarch.rpm                                                                  |  31 MB  00:00:26     
Total                                                                                                                    2.8 MB/s |  75 MB  00:00:27     
Retrieving key from file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-oracle
Importing GPG key 0xEC551F03:
 Userid     : "Oracle OSS group (Open Source Software group) <>"
 Fingerprint: 4214 4123 fecf c55b 9086 313d 72f9 7b74 ec55 1f03
 Package    : 7:oraclelinux-release-7.2-1.0.5.el7.x86_64 (@anaconda/7.2)
 From       : /etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-oracle
Is this ok [y/N]: y
Running transaction check
Running transaction test
Transaction test succeeded
Running transaction
Warning: RPMDB altered outside of yum.
  Updating   : dracut-033-360.0.3.el7_2.1.x86_64                                                                                                    1/10 
  Updating   : linux-firmware-20160604-44.git57b649d9.0.2.el7.noarch                                                                                2/10 
  Installing : kernel-uek-firmware-4.1.12-61.1.16.el7uek.noarch                                                                                     3/10 
  Installing : kernel-uek-4.1.12-61.1.16.el7uek.x86_64                                                                                              4/10 
  Updating   : dracut-network-033-360.0.3.el7_2.1.x86_64                                                                                            5/10 
  Updating   : dracut-config-rescue-033-360.0.3.el7_2.1.x86_64                                                                                      6/10 
  Cleanup    : dracut-config-rescue-033-359.0.1.el7.x86_64                                                                                          7/10 
  Cleanup    : dracut-network-033-359.0.1.el7.x86_64                                                                                                8/10 
  Cleanup    : linux-firmware-20150904-43.git6ebf5d5.0.1.el7.noarch                                                                                 9/10 
  Cleanup    : dracut-033-359.0.1.el7.x86_64                                                                                                       10/10 
  Verifying  : dracut-033-360.0.3.el7_2.1.x86_64                                                                                                    1/10 
  Verifying  : dracut-network-033-360.0.3.el7_2.1.x86_64                                                                                            2/10 
  Verifying  : kernel-uek-firmware-4.1.12-61.1.16.el7uek.noarch                                                                                     3/10 
  Verifying  : kernel-uek-4.1.12-61.1.16.el7uek.x86_64                                                                                              4/10 
  Verifying  : dracut-config-rescue-033-360.0.3.el7_2.1.x86_64                                                                                      5/10 
  Verifying  : linux-firmware-20160604-44.git57b649d9.0.2.el7.noarch                                                                                6/10 
  Verifying  : dracut-config-rescue-033-359.0.1.el7.x86_64                                                                                          7/10 
  Verifying  : dracut-033-359.0.1.el7.x86_64                                                                                                        8/10 
  Verifying  : linux-firmware-20150904-43.git6ebf5d5.0.1.el7.noarch                                                                                 9/10 
  Verifying  : dracut-network-033-359.0.1.el7.x86_64                                                                                               10/10 

  kernel-uek.x86_64 0:4.1.12-61.1.16.el7uek                                                                                                              

Dependency Installed:
  kernel-uek-firmware.noarch 0:4.1.12-61.1.16.el7uek                                                                                                     

Dependency Updated:
  dracut.x86_64 0:033-360.0.3.el7_2.1                     dracut-config-rescue.x86_64 0:033-360.0.3.el7_2.1 dracut-network.x86_64 0:033-360.0.3.el7_2.1
  linux-firmware.noarch 0:20160604-44.git57b649d9.0.2.el7


Generate a new grub.cfg file:

[root@oscsa ~]# grub2-mkconfig > grub.cfg
Generating grub configuration file ...
Found linux image: /boot/vmlinuz-4.1.12-61.1.16.el7uek.x86_64
Found initrd image: /boot/initramfs-4.1.12-61.1.16.el7uek.x86_64.img
Found linux image: /boot/vmlinuz-3.10.0-327.el7.x86_64
Found initrd image: /boot/initramfs-3.10.0-327.el7.x86_64.img
Found linux image: /boot/vmlinuz-0-rescue-09ec9b0ef1b542bcbde9147e2e5d21e8
Found initrd image: /boot/initramfs-0-rescue-09ec9b0ef1b542bcbde9147e2e5d21e8.img

Move the updated grub.cfg file to the grub2 directory:

[root@oscsa ~]# mv grub.cfg /boot/grub2
mv: overwrite ‘/boot/grub2/grub.cfg’? y

We need to disable SELinux in the Host. SELinux is currently not supported and should be disabled.

[root@oscsa grub2]# cat /etc/selinux/config

# This file controls the state of SELinux on the system.
# SELINUX= can take one of these three values:
#     enforcing - SELinux security policy is enforced.
#     permissive - SELinux prints warnings instead of enforcing.
#     disabled - No SELinux policy is loaded.
# SELINUXTYPE= can take one of three two values:
#     targeted - Targeted processes are protected,
#     minimum - Modification of targeted policy. Only selected processes are protected. 
#     mls - Multi Level Security protection.

Then we need to reboot the server
[root@oscsa grub2]# reboot

After the reboot, let’s make sure that SELinux is disabled:

[root@oscsa ~]# sestatus
SELinux status:                 disabled

Let’s also make sure that we are booting off the new UEK 4 kernel release:

[root@oscsa ~]# uname -a
Linux 4.1.12-61.1.16.el7uek.x86_64 #2 SMP Fri Oct 21 14:23:20 PDT 2016 x86_64 x86_64 x86_64 GNU/Linux

We need to edit the /etc/yum.repos.d/public-yum-ol7.repo file on the host and enable the channels for adding and optional_latest:
• Change the value of enable to 1 in addons.
• Change the value of enable to 1 in optional_latest.

Here’s what these sections should look like:

name=Oracle Linux $releasever Optional Latest ($basearch)

name=Oracle Linux $releasever Add ons ($basearch)

What is the Oracle Storage Cloud Software Appliance?
In a nutshell, the Oracle Storage Cloud Software Appliance serves as a cloud storage gateway to easily connect on-premise applications/data shares/workflows to Oracle Storage Cloud Service.

What is the Hardware Requirements
• 2 Cores
• 4GB of memory

What is the Software Requirements
• Oracle Linux 7 with UEK Release 4 or later
• Docker 1.8.3 or later. For information on Docker, please visit
• At least on NFS version 4.0

Installing Oracle Linux 7.2
We will start with installing Oracle Linux 7.2 and then in the next article, I will provide the step-by-step instructions to setup and configure the Oracle Storage Cloud Software Appliance.

Choose to option to Install Oracle Linux 7.2 and hit the enter/return button

Accept the default to install the English language and Click on Continue


Select on the Date & Time area to modify the default timezone for the VM.
We are changing our timezone from New York to Chicago
You can choose to enable NTP at this time
Click on the Done button when you are complete to take you back to the previous screen.

If you scroll down, you will see the Network & Host Name in the SYSTEM section. Click on the Network & Host Name part of the screen.

Change the Host name
Click on the Off switch on the far right corner to enable the Ethernet network
Click on the Done button when you are complete to take you back to the previous screen.

We will choose to keep the Minimal Install option.

For this particular installation, we will keep the “Automatic partitioning selected” option but it is required for you to navigate to the Installation Destination screen to validate that is what you choose:
By default, in the Partitioning section, the Automatically configure partitioning option is chosen. You can configure /root, /, /tmp/, swap and other file systems but for this configuration, we will choose the Automatically configure partitioning option and click on the Done button.

Now the Begin Installation button will be enabled. You are ready to start the installation.

While the installation is in progress, we will want to set the root password. NewImage

In the Root Password screen, we created the root password:
Because our password is weak, we will be asked to click on the Done button twice.

When you are routed back to the previous screen, you can optionally create additional users.


When the installation is complete, you will be asked to Reboot the VM. You will be asked to accept the license agreement.

This year will be my 10th consecutive year as a speaker at Oracle OpenWorld. I will focus on Oracle Cloud, Oracle Cloud and More Oracle Cloud. I will also be speaking at the 1/2 day Cloud Experience Technical Workshop (formerly known as Cloud Attack at the IOUG – Independent Oracle Users Group conference) with several other ACEs and ACEDs from The Oracle ACE Program on behalf of the Cloud SIG. We have a lot of preparation to do for updating our content for the Cloud Experience Technical Workshop.

OOW Speaker Header

For the Backup to the Cloud and Beyond session, we are thinking outside the box and delivering a solution that will handle both Oracle related files and non-Oracle files. Here’s the abstract to the session:

Let us challenge your thoughts about backing up files to Oracle Cloud. Every customer should be considering RMAN backups of their databases to Oracle Cloud (if not already). Backing up the Oracle database to the cloud is just the tip of the iceberg. You have to think outside the box and consider the entire solution and include the non-database files such as middleware backups, documents, reports, logs, etc.

In this session, we will reveal how Viscosity provides end-to-end backup solutions to Oracle Cloud. We will present a deep-dive content of backing up the database to the Oracle Cloud. We will go into extensive details on backing up non-oracle files to Oracle Cloud. We will demonstrate various methods to uploading and downloading various types files (including RMAN) to the Cloud and how to drive performance.

Stay tuned for additional details to my deep-dive session on Back Up to the Cloud and Beyond and for the Cloud Experience Technical Workshop.

Remember the number 33. I always seem to forget the $33 per TB per month number as I talk with potential customers. For a mere $33.00 / TB / Month, you can backup your Oracle Databases to the Oracle Public Cloud. For this low amount you get:

  • Unlimited Oracle Database backups
  • Automatic three-way data mirroring
  • Regional data isolation
  • Transparent access via Oracle Database Cloud Backup Module and Recovery Manager (RMAN)
  • RMAN encryption and compression

Performing backups to the cloud is a no brainer. Everyone should be considering backing up their database to the cloud.

Posted on July 27, 2016

Here’s an example to create a user account for Charles:

/usr/sbin/groupadd -K GID_MIN=500 -K GID_MAX=10000 ckim
/usr/sbin/useradd -g ckim -K UID_MIN=500 -K UID_MAX=10000 -c "Charles Kim" -d /home/ckim -m -s /bin/bash ckim

Then here is another example of creating a user for David:

# set -o vi
# for i in dknight; do groupadd -K GID_MIN=500 -K GID_MAX=10000 $i; /usr/sbin/useradd -g $i -K UID_MIN=500 -K UID_MAX=10000 -d /home/$i -m -s /bin/bash $i ; chage -d0 $i;echo "newpassword" | passwd --stdin $i;done
Changing password for user dknight

Here’s some of my favorite Oracle Database 12.2 Multitenant new features that I can talk about at this time. Oracle Database 12c Release 2 is slated to go live sometime this year.

Pluggable databases

  • The number of PDB limits per CDB increases to 4096 rom the limit of 252 PDBs in 12.2. Even though we do not have customers who have over 252 PDBs or even venture in this high number of PDBs, Oracle raised this limit in 12.2.
  • Resource manager will have the capability to limit the memory and govern CPU and I/O.  For RAC (or RAC One Node) services associated to a PDB, oracle will not have interconnect overhead
  • In 12.2, we will no longer need to to put the PDB in read-only mode to perform hot clones.  
  • We can refresh PDBs online.  
  • We can relocate PDBs without any downtime.  We can move PDBs from one CDB to another.  Larry Ellison in OOW 2015 did a live demo and moved a PDB from on-premise to Oracle Public Cloud.  12.2 eliminates the need to put the PDB in read-only mode.
  • Proxy PDBs are introduced.  We can have a new kind of a PDB which points to a remote PDB.  The remote PDB is presented as a local PDB and in all practical purposes looks like a local PDB with all functionality is available to the Proxy PDB.
  • All new Application Containers are introduced. Oracle revolutionizes the concept of having a single master application definition for all the tenant containers. We can make changes to just location and changes will sync to all the tenant container.