Posted by: Charles Kim, Oracle ACE Director and VMware vExpert
We will review the basics of installing Red Hat Linux Enterprise 6 Update 4 for the Intel 64-bit platform in a virtualized infrastructure to prepare an environment to install an Oracle cluster and database(s). To simplify the process and to demonstrate package installation procedures, we will select the option to install the Basic Server and required packages for Oracle databases afterwards. We will also go through a process of creating a local yum repository from the installation media to install packages with dependencies. As the final lesson, we will configure and customize Linux environment.
If you have a Red Hat subscription, you can download RHEL 6 ISO image files from Red Hat’s Software & Download Center customer portal. If you do not already have a subscription, you can obtain a free 30 evaluation subscription from https://access.redhat.com/downloads. Each of the DVD ISO images are about 3-4 GB in size. After you download the ISO image, create a bootable DVD and USB and reboot the system to start the installation.
In the Boot Menu, if there is no response within 60 seconds, the default option to Install or upgrade an existing system using the GUI will be executed.
You will be given the option to perform a disk check on the installation media. Click on Skip.
The Welcome screen does not accept any actionable inputs to respond to. Click on Next to continue.
Select the language preference to be used for the installation. Please choose English from this option and click on Next
Please select the default U.S. English and click on Next
Select the Basic Storage type and click on Next
Since this is a fresh install, click on Yes, discard any data button
Add hostname for the node
Click on Configure Network
Click on Edit
Change the Method to Manual
Supply IP and Netmask
Click on Apply
Then click on Close
Then Click on Next
Select your timezone
Click on Next
Enter the password for root
Click on Next
If this is a non-development environment, you will want to choose a more secure password. Since this is my lab, I will choose to Click on Use Anyway and continue.
Click on Review and Modify partition layout
Click on Next
Click on Create
Select /tmp for Mount Point
Enter 4096 for Size (MB)
Click on OK
Click on Format
Click on Write changes to disk
Click Next from the Boot loader list screen
Select Basic Server and click on Next
It will perform a dependency check and start to perform the installation
Let’s remount our DVD so that we can copy all the RPMs from the DVD to a centralized location on the file system:
In order to setup a local Yum repository, we need to install the createrepo package. The createrepo package has dependencies on two additional packages: deltarpm and python-deltarpm. To successfully install the createrepo package, we will invoke the rpm command with the -ihv option and provide the names of all three packages:
We have successfully installed the createrepo package. The next step will be to copy all the RPMs from the DVD to an area on the local file system. In my example, I am copying the files to the /tmp file system but you will want to select a more permanent location.
We need to create a local yum repository (local.repo) file with the following entries:
[root@rac1 yum.repos.d]# cat /etc/yum.repos.d/local.repo [local] name=Local Repository baseurl=file:///tmp/Packages enabled=1 gpgcheck=0 protect=1
Notice the baseurl parameter. You will need to replace this parameter with the location of your local directory where you placed all the RPMs. After the files are copied, we will invoke the createrepo command and provide the location of the directory where the RPMs were copied to:
We have successfully created our local yum repository. Now we are ready to install required packages for oracle with yum. Let’s install the rsync RPM for demonstration purposes:
[root@rac1 Packages]# yum install rsync Loaded plugins: product-id, security, subscription-manager This system is not registered to Red Hat Subscription Management. You can use subscription-manager to register. Repository rhel-source is listed more than once in the configuration Repository rhel-source-beta is listed more than once in the configuration Setting up Install Process Resolving Dependencies --> Running transaction check ---> Package rsync.x86_64 0:3.0.6-9.el6 will be installed --> Finished Dependency Resolution Dependencies Resolved ============================================================================================================================================================================== Package Arch Version Repository Size ============================================================================================================================================================================== Installing: rsync x86_64 3.0.6-9.el6 local 334 k Transaction Summary ============================================================================================================================================================================== Install 1 Package(s) Total download size: 334 k Installed size: 682 k Is this ok [y/N]: y Downloading Packages: Running rpm_check_debug Running Transaction Test Transaction Test Succeeded Running Transaction Installing : rsync-3.0.6-9.el6.x86_64 1/1 Verifying : rsync-3.0.6-9.el6.x86_64 1/1 Installed: rsync.x86_64 0:3.0.6-9.el6 Complete!
Now you are ready to install the remaining packages required by oracle. Here’s a comprehensive list for Oracle Database 11g Release 2:
• binutils-188.8.131.52.2-5.11.el6 (x86_64) • compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3-69.el6 (x86_64) • glibc-2.12-1.7.el6 (x86_64) • ksh-*.el6 (x86_64) • libaio-0.3.107-10.el6 (x86_64) • libgcc-4.4.4-13.el6 (x86_64) • libstdc++-4.4.4-13.el6 (x86_64) • make-3.81-19.el6 (x86_64) • compat-libcap1-1.10-1 (x86_64) • gcc-4.4.4-13.el6 (x86_64) • gcc-c++-4.4.4-13.el6 (x86_64) • glibc-devel-2.12-1.7.el6 (x86_64) • libaio-devel-0.3.107-10.el6 (x86_64) • libstdc++-devel-4.4.4-13.el6 (x86_64) • sysstat-9.0.4-11.el6 (x86_64) • unixODBC-2.2.11-7.1.x86_64.rpm • unixODBC-2.2.11-7.1.i386.rpm • UnixODBC-devel-2.2.11-7.1.x86_64.rpm • UnixODBC-devel-2.2.11-7.1.i386.rpm
Optional 32-bit Client Software
• compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3-69.el6 (i686) • glibc-2.12-1.7.el6 (i686) • glibc-devel-2.12-1.7.el6 (i686) • libaio-0.3.107-10.el6 (i686) • libaio-devel-0.3.107-10.el6 (i686) • libgcc-4.4.4-13.el6 (i686) • libstdc++-4.4.4-13.el6 (i686) • libstdc++-devel-4.4.4-13.el6 (i686)
In addition to the above mention RPMs, here’s some additional set of executables that may be of interest to you as an administrator:
• screen • wget • rsync • nmon • uuencode
Next, let’s modify our kernel parameters in /etc/sysctl.conf. In your environment, if the kernel parameter value is higher than the value listed below, you should not lower the value. Range values (such as net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range) should match accordingly. Parameters like SHMMAX should be adjusted accordingly to the amount of physical memory on the database server (i.e. For example, I generally tell customers that a good number to start is ½ or 2/3 or more of physical memory depending on how much physical memory that they have and how much PGA and number of dedicated server processes they expect). SHMALL is also derived based on physical RAM size / pagesize.
# --Setting up Kernel Parameters for Oracle Database 11g R2 installation # # Controls the maximum shared segment size, in bytes kernel.shmmax = 4398046511104 # Controls the maximum number of shared memory segments, in pages kernel.shmall = 1073741824 # For 11g, recommended value for file-max is 6815744 fs.file-max = 6815744 # For 10g, uncomment 'fs.file-max 327679', comment other entries for this parameter and re-run sysctl -p # fs.file-max:327679 kernel.msgmni = 2878 kernel.sem = 250 32000 100 142 kernel.shmmni = 4096 net.core.rmem_default = 262144 # For 11g, recommended value for net.core.rmem_max is 4194304 net.core.rmem_max = 4194304 # For 10g, uncomment 'net.core.rmem_max 2097152', comment other entries for this parameter and re-run sysctl -p # net.core.rmem_max=2097152 net.core.wmem_default = 262144 # For 11g, recommended value for wmem_max is 1048576 net.core.wmem_max = 1048576 # For 10g, uncomment 'net.core.wmem_max 262144', comment other entries for this parameter and re-run sysctl -p # net.core.wmem_max:262144 fs.aio-max-nr = 3145728 # For 11g, recommended value for ip_local_port_range is 9000 65500 net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 9000 65500 # For 10g, uncomment 'net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range 1024 65000', comment other entries for this parameter and re-run sysctl -p # net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range:1024 65000 # Added min_free_kbytes 50MB to avoid OOM killer on EL4/EL5 vm.min_free_kbytes = 51200 # fs.file-max = 6815744
To activate these new settings into the running kernel space, run the “sysctl –p” command as root.
As the final steps, we need to create the dba, oinstall, and asmadmin groups and the oracle user account. The following set of scripts can be leveraged to automate this process:
/usr/sbin/groupadd -g xxxx oinstall /usr/sbin/groupadd -g xxxx dba /usr/sbin/groupadd -g xxxx asmadmin
Where xxx is the gid that conforms to your corporate standards.
useradd -u xxxx -g xxxx -s /bin/bash -d /home/oracle -c "Oracle Admin" oracle passwd oracle
Where xxxx is the uid and gid that conforms to your corporate standards.
Lastly, we will create the directories for grid infrastructure and oracle database software:
mkdir –p /u01/app/11.2.0/grid mkdir -p /u01/app/oracle/product mkdir -p /u01/app/oraInventory mkdir –p /u01/app/oracle/general chown -R oracle:oinstall /u01/app chmod -R 775 /u01/app
Please set the home directory for oracle to be: /home/oracle
Please make sure we have the nobody user created